Forensic Biology and Toxicology division of our Laboratory deals with cases pertaining the detection of biological fluids (blood, semen, saliva, urine, etc.) and poisons commonly found at a scene of crime, or involving initiation of a crime. These divisions work principally on the fundamentals of biology and chemistry, to the legal investigations.
Forensic Biology division of our Laboratory, generally handles cases as blood group examination, species origin identification, extraction of DNA from dried bloodstains, blood pool or tissues obtained from the crime scene. This identification and examination process not only helps clasp the perpetrator but also aid in the exoneration of the innocent. The presence of seminal and vaginal discharge at a scene of crime is an indication of a recent sexual encounter, that can be consensual or a forced one. Similarly, the presence of blood and bodily tissues can depict the possible struggle and violence that is a very general happening at a crime scene. A proper and thorough observation along with a systematic examination of the encountered biological evidences can alone unveil many details, which may link up the events that might have occurred during the commencement of crime.
Forensic Toxicology, as the name suggests deals with the detection of poisons and other toxic substances, involved in the cases alleged to poisoning. In cases, where the death is considered to be due to the induction of certain drugs or poisons, then in such cases, bodily fluids as vomit, faeces, stomach wash and other excreted fluids are monitored, in order to ascertain the actuality of the entire incident. In toxicology, the main aspects that are covered and considered are the determination of route of administration of poison or drug, the dose of the poison induced, the medico-legal aspect of poisoning, signs and symptoms concerned with a poison and its rate of fatality.
The vital concern of the Forensic Biology and Toxicology division is to maintain the integrity of the evidences by taking proper measures in order to avoid the possible contamination of the fragile evidences. Biological evidences, being very delicate in nature, should be collected and preserved in an appropriate method; as any contamination caused to a biological or toxicological evidence, may hinder in the methodical legal proceedings related to the case.
Species determination from Blood is a very major task to be looked upon, when blood is found at a crime scene. When blood is encountered at a crime scene, it is the first and foremost task of the investigator to determine if the blood belongs to animal or human origin.
Blood Detection, in an elaborative manner describes revealing whether a particular stain found at a crime scene is blood or not. As certain vegetables stains resemble blood stains to a farther extent, thus it is mandatory to find out if a particular stain is blood or not.
Blood Examination is carried out to confirm the assessment, if a particular stain is actually blood or not. In order to do so, after the preliminary tests are carried out, it is mandatory for a forensic analyst to carry out the confirmatory tests for blood, as these tests may provide assurance to the fact that the particular stain is indisputably a blood stain.
Semen Examination is very common in cases as sexual assaults. In such cases, the stain is first of all confirmed to be semen and then, the possible matching criteria is followed.
Examination of Urine is normally performed to detect the levels of alcohol in urine.
Examination of Saliva is in common a part of regular crime scene investigation and analysis. Cigarette buds, bitten food piece, wine glasses and at times bite marks; especially in sexual assault cases. Saliva can serve as a massive source of DNA, and thus holds an utmost importance as an evidence in forensic science.
DNA Fingerprinting is a modern technique, very commonly employed in Forensic Biology. It is considered a very reliable means of identification, just as the science of fingerprint. This technique is generally used in maternity-paternity disputes, and to establish identity in rape cases.
Detection of toxins and their lethality is the main motive of a toxicologist. The common poisons that are generally involved in poisoning are- certain plant poisons, house-hold poisons, corrosive poisons, insecticides, pesticides and sometimes accidental animal poisoning.
A Laboratory concerned with Forensic Biology and Toxicology is a full-fledged laboratory that is well-equipped with all the related apparatuses and chemicals required for a proper and protocolled examination of all the biological and toxicological evidences spotted at a crime scene.